In this post I wanted to give a summary of disease that will help you study for the COA (Certified Ophthalmic Assistant) Exam.
Exophthalmos – a forward protrusion of the eyes. Occurs in graves
disease. Blowout fracture– break in the bony orbital floor walls
Strabismus – when eyes are out of alignment. When the foveas of the
two eyes are not focused at the same object double vision occurs. Strabismus is
broken down into what kind of deviation it is (exo or eso) and if it is
continually present or only present when one of the eyes is covered. Exo
deviation – outward deviation of the eyes Eso deviation – inward
deviation of the eyes Hyper deviation – upward deviations of the eyes Hypo
deviation – downward deviations of the eyes tropia- this is a continual
manifestation of a deviation phoria- this is when the deviation is only present
when one eye is covered. Thus there are eight types of strabismus that you need
to know as summarized below.
Congenital strabismus must be corrected at an early age. If not corrected it can
result in stereopsis. Stereopsis is a loss in three dimensional
perception. Nystagmus is a condition in which the eyes shake back and forth.
A chalazion is a non-infectious granulomatous inflammation of a meibomian
gland. A stye or hordeolum is like a pimple usually at the base of an
eyelash. Blepharitis: Recall that “itis” means inflammation and “Bleph” is
eyelid. Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelid. Ptosis: a drooping of
the upper eyelid. Ectropion: is a turning of the lid margin outward and away
from the eyelid Entropion: is a turning of the lid margin inward and toward
the eyelid. This causes trichiasis which is when the eyelashes rub against
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca – dry eye syndrome Lid
lacerations – The important thing to remember about lid lacerations is
that those which cut through the lacrimal duct are the most difficult to repair.
Abnormalities of the eye
Three kinds of conjunctiva (pink eye)
- Viral – this is the most common type of conjunctivitis. Red,Watery,Starts in one eye then spreads to the other.
- Bacterial – Mucous discharge
- Allergic – red and puffy. Sometimes called an “allergic shiner” because it looks like you got punched in the eye. Usually itchy.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage – This is usually harmless, but it appears
bright red and alarms patients. Pinguecula- is a small mass on the
conjunctiva. May cause minor eye irritation. Pterygium- is a growth on the
conjunctiva which may grow onto the cornea and may cause irritation.
Cornea and Sclera
Keratitis- “kera” cornea “itis”. This is an inflammation of the
cornea. Abrasions and lacerations- Abrasions and lacerations are
lesions(breaks in tissue). An abrasion is a scratch, like a really bad rug burn.
A laceration is a tear. Corneal Ulcer – An infected lesion. Herpes
simplex virus – a dendritic figure that shows under fluorescence is
one of the hallmarks of this infection. Arcus senilis – an opaque ring
which forms around the eye after age 50. Scleritis – an inflammation
of the sclera.
Hypopyon – puss in the anterior chamber Hyphema – pooled blood in the anterior chamber
Iritis – The inflammation of the iris.
Presbyopia – Loss of accommodation Cataract – opacification
of the lens Aphakia – Absence of a lens Pseudophakic –
intraocular lens implant
Floaters– vitreous collagen fibers
Retinal Detachment – a separation of the sensory layers of the retina
from the underlying pigment layer Diabetic retinopathy – Leaky blood
vessels due to high blood sugar. May cause new blood vessel growth in which case
it would be called proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Age related macular
degeneration (AMD) – This is the degeneration of the macula. There are
two types. Dry and wet. Wet AMD is the more dangerous of the two. Wet AMD is a
sign of neovascularization. Vascular occlusion– blockage of a blood
vessel resulting in hypoxia.
Optic neuritis – inflammation of the optic nerve. Glaucoma –
death of the optic nerve related to high eye pressure.
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